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Li, C., Wang, R., Qian, D., & Li, T. (2016). Managing Server Clusters on Renewable Energy Mix.
As climate change has become a global concern and server energy demand continues to soar, many IT companies have started to explore server clusters running on various renewable energy sources. Existing green data center designs often yield suboptimal performance as they only look at a certain specific type of energy source. This article explores data centers powered by hybrid renewable energy systems. We propose GreenWorks, a framework for HPC data centers running on a renewable energy mix. Specifically, GreenWorks features a cross-layer power management scheme tailored to the timing behaviors and capacity constraints of different energy sources. Using realistic workload traces and renewable energy data, we show that GreenWorks could provide a near-optimal workload performance (within 3% difference) on average. It can also reduce the worst-case performance degradation by 43% compared to the state-of-the-art design. Moreover, the performance improvements are based on carbon-neutral operations and are not at the cost of significant efficiency degradation and reduced battery lifecycle. Our technique becomes more efficient when servers become more energy proportional and can effectively handle the ever-increasing depth of renewable power penetration in green data centers.
renewable energy mix
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Miller, T. E. (2015). Effects of disturbance on vegetation by sand accretion and erosion across coastal dune habitats on a barrier island.
Coastal geomorphology and vegetation are expected to be particularly sensitive to climate change, because of disturbances caused by sea-level rise and increased storm frequency. Dunes have critical reciprocal interactions with vegetation; dunes create habitats for plants, while plants help to build dunes and promote geomorphological stability. These interactions are also greatly affected by disturbances associated with sand movement, either in accretion (dune building) or erosion. The magnitude and intensity of disturbances are expected to vary with habitat, from the more exposed and less stable foredunes, to low-lying and flood-prone interdunes, to the protected and older backdunes. Permanent plots were established at three different spatial scales on St. George Island FL (USA), where the vegetation and dune elevation were quantified annually from 2011-2013. Change in elevation, either through accretion or erosion, was used as measure of year-to-year disturbance of the two years of the study. At the scale of different dune habitats, foredunes were found to have greatest disturbance, while interdunes had the least. Elevation and habitat (i.e., foredune, interdune, backdune) were significantly correlated with plant community composition. Generalized linear models conducted within each habitat show that change in elevation (disturbance) also is significantly correlated with the plant community, but only within foredunes and interdunes. The importance of disturbance in exposed foredunes was expected and was found to be related to an increasing abundance of a dominant species (Uniola paniculata) in eroding areas. The significant effect of disturbance in the relatively stable interdunes was surprising, and may be due to the importance of flooding associated with small changes in elevation in these low-lying areas. Overall, this study documents changes in the plant community associated with elevation, and demonstrates that the foredune and interdune communities are also associated with the responses of specific species to local changes in elevation due to accretion or erosion.
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