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Weihs, R. R., & Bourassa, M. A. (2014). Modeled diurnally varying sea surface temperatures and their influence on surface heat fluxes. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 119(7), 4101–4123.
Abstract: A diurnal warming model is used to create a new data set of global, diurnally varying sea surface temperatures (dSSTs) and surface turbulent heat fluxes over a 5 year period. The magnitude of diurnal warming is primarily a function of low wind speed and net heat flux. Differences between each of the surface turbulent fluxes with and without a diurnally varying SST are examined on hourly, daily, and seasonal time scales. Over a 2 month period, maximum averaged diurnal warming is as large as 0.3°C, and latent heat flux is underestimated by as much as 8 W/m2 in the Indian Ocean. They also exceed roughly 0.7°C and 10 W/m2, respectively, up to 25% of the total daytime in the Atlantic. A best-case approach validation shows the model overestimates peak warming and underestimates the duration of the cycle, though the average error is quite small. The model is tested under a variety of wind speed, solar radiation, and precipitation conditions to examine the impact of potential biases or error in the input data. To test the impact of a positive bias in the wind speeds, diurnal warming magnitudes are recomputed with an adjusted wind under near-neutral conditions. Compared to the original data, diurnal warming can increase by as much as 1.5°C on an hourly scale but generally is <0.06°C. Although precipitation effects on dSSTs are small compared to winds and radiation, the model configuration wrongly causes diurnal warming to increase by precipitation, contrary to the underlying model physics.