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Author Heinemann, A.B.; Maia, A.D.; Dourado-Neto, D.; Ingram, K.T.; Hoogenboom, C.
Title Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) growth and development response to CO2 enrichment under different temperature regimes Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Abbreviated Journal European Journal of Agronomy
Volume Issue Pages 52-61
Keywords growth chamber controlled environment global climate change growth analysis soybean temperature CO2 development CARBON-DIOXIDE CONCENTRATION ATMOSPHERIC CO2 ELEVATED CO2 SEED YIELD ENVIRONMENTAL-STRESS PLANT-RESPONSES AIR-TEMPERATURE PHOTOSYNTHESIS RESPIRATION CULTIVARS
Abstract The carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration of the global atmosphere has increased during the last decades. This increase is expected to impact the diurnal variation in temperature as well as the occurrence of extreme temperatures. This potentially could affect crop production through changes in growth and development that will ultimately impact yield. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of CO2 and its interaction with temperature on growth and development of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr., cv. Stonewall). The experiment was conducted in controlled environment chambers at the Georgia Envirotron under three different temperatures and two CO2 regimes. The day/night air temperatures were maintained at 20/15, 25/20 and 30/25 degrees C, while the CO2 levels were maintained at 400 and 700 ppm, resulting in six different treatments. Plants were grown under a constant irradiance of 850 mu moles m(-2) s(-1) and a day length of 12 h; a non-limiting supply of water and mineral nutrients were provided. Five growth analyses were conducted at the critical development stages V4, R3, R5, R6 and R8. No differences in start of flowering were observed as a function of the CO2 level, except for the temperature regime 25/20 degrees C, where flowering for the elevated CO2 level occurred 2 days earlier than for the ambient CO2 level. For aboveground biomass, an increase in the CO2 level caused a more vigorous growth at lower temperatures. An increase in temperature also decreased seed weight, mainly due to a reduction in seed size. For all temperature combinations, final seed weight was higher for the elevated CO, level. This study showed that controlled environment chambers can be excellent facilities for conducting a detailed growth analysis to study the impact on the interactive effect of changes in temperature and CO2 on soybean growth and final yield. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Address Hoogenboom, C (reprint author), Univ Georgia, Dept Biol & Agr Engn, Griffin, GA 30223 USA Univ Georgia, Dept Biol & Agr Engn, Griffin, GA 30223 USA Embrapa Arroz & Feijao, BR-75375000 Sto Antonio De Goias, Go, Brazil Embrapa Meio Ambiente, BR-13820000 Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil Univ Sao Paulo, ESALQ, Dept Crop Sci, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
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ISSN 1161-0301 ISBN Medium
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Call Number FSU COAPS @ refbase @ 380 Serial 67
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Author Katsaros, K. B., A. Bentamy, M. Bourassa, N. Ebuchi, J. Gower, W. T. Liu, and S. Vignudelli
Title Climate Data Issues from an Oceanographic Remote Sensing Perspective Type Book Chapter
Year 2011 Publication Remote Sensing of the Changing Oceans Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 7-32
Keywords Oceanographic satellite sensors; Scatterometers; Altimeters; microwave radiometers; infrared and ocean color sensors; winds; sea surface temperature; air-sea fluxes; international cooperation for climate quality data; sampling; consistency; archiving and distribution
Abstract In this chapter we review several climatologically important variables with a history of observation from spaceborne platforms. These include sea surface temperature and wind vectors, altimetric estimates of sea surface height, energy and water vapor fluxes at the sea surface, precipitation over the ocean, and ocean color. We then discuss possible improvements in sampling for climate and climate change definition. Issues of consistency of different data sources, archiving and distribution of these types of data are discussed. The practical prospect of immediate international coordination through the concept of virtual constellations is discussed and applauded.
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Publisher Springer-Verlag Place of Publication Berlin, Germany Editor
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title (up)
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN 978-3-642-16540-5 Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number FCI @ refbase @ Serial 262
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Author Misra, V; Stroman, A; DiNapoli, S
Title The rendition of the Atlantic Warm Pool in the reanalyses Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Climate Dynamics Abbreviated Journal Clim. Dyn.
Volume 41 Issue 2 Pages 517-532
Keywords Atlantic Warm Pool; ENSO; Tropospheric temperature
Abstract The Atlantic Warm Pool (AWP) region, which is comprised of the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and parts of the northwestern tropical Atlantic Ocean, is one of the most poorly observed parts of the global oceans. This study compares three ocean reanalyses, namely the Global Ocean Data Assimilation System (GODAS) of National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) of NCEP, and the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) for its AWP variation. The surface temperature in these ocean reanalyses is also compared with that from the Extended Range SST version 3 (ERSSTv3) and Optimally Interpolated SST version 2 (OISSTv2) SST analyses. In addition we also compare three atmospheric reanalyses: NCEP-NCAR (R1), NCEP-DOE (R2), and CFSR for the associated atmospheric variability with the AWP. The comparison shows that there are important differences in the climatology of the AWP and its interannual variations. There are considerable differences in the subsurface ocean manifestation of the AWP with SODA (CFSR) showing the least (largest) modulation of the subsurface ocean temperatures. The remote teleconnections with the tropical Indian Ocean are also different across the reanalyses. However, all three oceanic reanalyses consistently show the absence of any teleconnection with the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean. The influence of the AWP on the tropospheric temperature anomalies last for up to a one season lead and it is found to be relatively weak in R1 reanalyses. A simplified SST anomaly equation initially derived for diagnosing ENSO variability is adapted for the AWP variations in this study. The analysis of this equation reveals that the main contribution of the SST variation in the AWP region is from the variability of the net heat flux. All three reanalyses consistently show that the role of the ocean advective terms, including that associated with upwelling in the AWP region, is comparatively much smaller. The covariance of the SST tendency in the AWP with the net heat flux is large, with significant contribution from the variations of the surface shortwave and longwave fluxes.
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Call Number FCI @ refbase @ Serial 276
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Author Martinez, C.J.; Maleski, J.J.; Miller, M.F.
Title Trends in precipitation and temperature in Florida, USA Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Journal of Hydrology Abbreviated Journal Journal of Hydrology
Volume 452-453 Issue Pages 259-281
Keywords Trend; Precipitation; Temperature
Abstract permutation procedure. Field significant trends in seasonal precipitation were found in only the June-August and March-May seasons for the 1895-2009 and 1970-2009 time periods, respectively. Significant decreasing trends in monthly precipitation were found in the months of October and May for the 1895-2009 and 1970-2009 time periods, respectively. Field significant trends were found for all temperature variables for both time periods, with the largest number of stations with significant trends occurring in the summer and autumn months. Trends in mean, maximum, and minimum temperature were generally positive with a higher proportion of positive trends in the 1970-2009 period. The spatial coherence of trends in temperature range was generally less compared to other temperature variables, with a larger proportion of stations showing negative trends in the summer and positive trends at other times of the year and more negative trends found in the 1970-2009 period. Significant differences in temperature trends based on the surrounding land use were found for minimum temperature and temperature range in the 1970-2009 period indicating that data homogenization of the USHCN temperature data did not fully remove this influence. The evaluation of trends based on station exposure ratings shows significant differences in temperature variables in both the 1895-2009 and 1970-2009 time periods. Systematic changes in trends can be seen in the 1980s, the period of widespread conversion from liquid-in-glass to electronic measurement, indicating that some of the differences found may be due to uncorrected inhomogeneities. Since notable differences were found between differently rated stations pre-1940, a time which the present-day rating should have little to no influence, attribution of differences based on station rating should be done with caution.
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-1694 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number FCI @ refbase @ Serial 277
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Author Stefanova, L; Sura, P; Griffin, M
Title Quantifying the non-Gaussianity of observed wintertime daily minimum and maximum temperatures in the Southeast United States Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Journal of Climate Abbreviated Journal J. Climate
Volume 26 Issue 3 Pages 838-850
Keywords Extreme events; Surface temperature; Statistics; Anomalies; Climate variability
Abstract This paper examines the statistics of daily maximum and minimum surface air temperature at weather stations in the Southeast United States as a function of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Arctic Oscillation (AO) phase. A limited number of studies address how ENSO and/or AO affect United States� daily � as opposed to monthly or seasonal � temperature averages. The details of the effect of ENSO or AO on the higher order statistics for wintertime daily minimum and maximum temperatures have not been clearly documented. Quality-controlled daily observations collected from 1960 to 2009 from 272 National Weather Service�s Cooperative Observing Network stations throughout Florida, Georgia, Alabama, and South and North Carolina are used to calculate the first four statistical moments of minimum and maximum daily temperature distributions. It is found that, over the Southeast, winter minimum temperatures have higher variability than maximum temperatures, and La Niña winters have greater variability of both minimum and maximum temperatures. With the exception of Florida�s peninsula, minimum temperatures are positively skewed, while maximum temperatures are negatively skewed. Stations in peninsular Florida exhibit negative skewness for both maximum and minimum temperatures. During the relatively warmer winters associated with either a La Niña or AO+, negative skewnesses are exacerbated and positive skewnesses are reduced. To a lesser extent, the converse is true of El Niño and AO-. ENSO and AO are also shown to have a statistically significant effect on the change of kurtosis of daily maximum and minimum temperatures throughout the domain.
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Call Number FCI @ refbase @ Serial 283
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Author Duckworth, A.; West, L.; Vansach, T.; Stubler, A.; Hardt, M.
Title Effects of water temperature and pH on growth and metabolite biosynthesis of coral reef sponges Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Marine Ecology Progress Series Abbreviated Journal Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.
Volume 462 Issue Pages 67-77
Keywords Sponges · Water temperature · pH · Climate change · Growth · Metabolite biosynthesis
Abstract Warmer, more acidic water resulting from increased emissions of greenhouse gases will impact coral reef organisms, but the effects remain unknown for many dominant groups such as sponges. To test for possible effects, adult sponges of 6 common Caribbean coral reef species—Aiolochroia crassa, Aplysina cauliformis, Aplysina fistularis, Ectyoplasia ferox, Iotrochota birotulata and Smenospongia conulosa—were grown for 24 d in seawater ranging from values experienced at present-day summer-maxima (temperature = 28°C; pH = 8.1) to those predicted for the year 2100 (temperature = 31°C; pH = 7.8). For each species, growth and survival were similar among temperature and pH levels. Sponge attachment rates, which are important for reef consolidation, were similar between pH values for all species, and highest at 31°C for E. ferox, I. birotulata and A. cauliformis. Secondary metabolites, responsible for deterring predation and fouling, were examined for A. crassa, A. cauliformis, E. ferox and I. birotulata, with 1 to 3 major metabolites quantified from each species. Final metabolite concentrations varied significantly among treatments only for zooanemonin from E. ferox and N-tele-methylhistamine from I. birotulata, but these concentrations were similar to those found in wild conspecifics. Considering adult sponges only, these findings suggest that the ecological roles and physiological processes of the 6 coral reef species will be little affected by the mean values of water temperature and pH predicted for the end of the century.
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ISSN 0171-8630 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number FCI @ refbase @ Serial 286
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Author Boote, JK; Rybak, MR; Scholberg, JMS; Jones, JW
Title Improving the CROPGRO-Tomato Model for Predicting Growth and Yield Response to Temperature Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication HortScience Abbreviated Journal
Volume 47 Issue 8 Pages 1038-1049
Keywords cardinal temperatures; crop model parameters; development; fruit-set; fruit growth; leaf area; dry matter accumulation; fresh weight yield; Lycopersicon esculentum Mill
Abstract Parameterizing crop models for more accurate response to climate factors such as temperature is important considering potential temperature increases associated with climate change, particularly for tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), which is a heat-sensitive crop. The objective of this work was to update the cardinal temperature parameters of the CROPGRO-Tomato model affecting the simulation of crop development, daily dry matter (DM) production, fruit set, and DM partitioning of field-grown tomato from transplanting to harvest. The main adaptation relied on new literature values for cardinal temperature parameters that affect tomato crop phenology, fruit set, and fruit growth. The new cardinal temperature values are considered reliable because they come from recent published experiments conducted in controlled-temperature environments. Use of the new cardinal temperatures in the CROPGRO-Tomato model affected the rate of crop development compared with prior default parameters; thus, we found it necessary to recalibrate genetic coefficients that affect life cycle phases and growth simulated by the model. The model was recalibrated and evaluated with 10 growth analyses data sets collected in field experiments conducted at three locations in Florida (Bradenton, Quincy, and Gainesville) from 1991 to 2007. Use of modified parameters sufficiently improved model performance to provide accurate prediction of crop and fruit DM accumulation throughout the season. Overall, the average root mean square error (RMSE) over all experiments was reduced 44% for leaf area index, 71% for fruit number, and 36% for both aboveground biomass and fruit dry weight simulations with the modified parameters compared with the default. The Willmott d index was higher and was always above 0.92. The CROPGRO-Tomato model with these modified cardinal temperature parameters will predict more accurately tomato growth and yield response to temperature and thus be useful in model applications.
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Call Number FCI @ refbase @ Serial 314
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Author Boote, K.J.; Jones, J.W.; White, J.W.; Asseng, S.; Lizaso, J.I.
Title Putting mechanisms into crop production models: Putting mechanisms into crop production models Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Plant, Cell & Environment Abbreviated Journal Plant Cell Environ
Volume 36 Issue 9 Pages 1658-1672
Keywords carbon dioxide; crop development; crop modeling; genotype by environment; leaf area growth; photosynthesis; process-based models; reproductive; temperature; transpiration
Abstract Crop growth models dynamically simulate processes of C, N and water balance on daily or hourly time-steps to predict crop growth and development and at season-end, final yield. Their ability to integrate effects of genetics, environment and crop management have led to applications ranging from understanding gene function to predicting potential impacts of climate change. The history of crop models is reviewed briefly, and their level of mechanistic detail for assimilation and respiration, ranging from hourly leaf-to-canopy assimilation to daily radiation-use efficiency is discussed. Crop models have improved steadily over the past 30–40 years, but much work remains. Improvements are needed for the prediction of transpiration response to elevated CO2 and high temperature effects on phenology and reproductive fertility, and simulation of root growth and nutrient uptake under stressful edaphic conditions. Mechanistic improvements are needed to better connect crop growth to genetics and to soil fertility, soil waterlogging and pest damage. Because crop models integrate multiple processes and consider impacts of environment and management, they have excellent potential for linking research from genomics and allied disciplines to crop responses at the field scale, thus providing a valuable tool for deciphering genotype by environment by management effects.
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0140-7791 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number FCI @ refbase @ Serial 374
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Author Rudzin, J.E.; Morey, S.L.; Bourassa, M.A.; Smith, S.R.
Title The influence of Loop Current position on winter sea surface temperatures in the Florida Straits Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Earth Interactions Abbreviated Journal Earth Interact.
Volume 17 Issue 16 Pages 1-9
Keywords Air-sea interaction; Florida Straits; Loop Current; Sea surface temperature; CAO; Atlantic sailfish
Abstract Influences of the Gulf of Mexico's Loop Current (LC) position on the sea surface temperature (SST) in the Florida Straits (FS) during the winter season are investigated. Satellite-derived SST data are analyzed on the basis of the LC configuration (mature or immature) as determined by satellite altimetry analyses. Cumulative distributions of FS SSTs for both LC phases during the months of January and February show greater likelihood of cooler SSTs in the FS during a mature LC than during an immature LC. This work suggests that differing transit times of LC water parcels during mature and immature phases result in differences in heat loss of the LC near-surface water. This may contribute to the observed SST differences in FS during mature and immature LC phases via temperature advection.
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1087-3562 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number FCI @ refbase @ Serial 400
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Author Nicholson, S.E.; Nash, D.J.; Chase, B.M.; Grab, S.W.; Shanahan, T.M.; Verschuren, D.; Asrat, A.; Lezine, A.-M.; Umer, M.
Title Temperature variability over Africa during the last 2000 years Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication The Holocene Abbreviated Journal The Holocene
Volume 23 Issue 8 Pages 1085-1094
Keywords Africa; "Little Ice Age'; "Medieval Climate Anomaly'; temperature variability; 20th century
Abstract A growing number of proxy, historical and instrumental data sets are now available from continental Africa through which past variations in temperature can be assessed. This paper, co-authored by members of the PAGES Africa2k Working Group, synthesises published material to produce a record of temperature variability for Africa as a whole spanning the last 2000 years. The paper focuses on temperature variability during the Medieval Climate Anomaly' (MCA), Little Ice Age' (LIA) and late 19th-early 21st centuries. Warmer conditions during the MCA are evident in records from Lake Tanganyika in central Africa, the Ethiopian Highlands in northeastern Africa, and Cango Cave, the Kuiseb River and Wonderkrater in southern Africa. Other records covering the MCA give ambiguous signals. Warming appears to have been greater during the early MCA (c. ad 1000) in parts of southern Africa and during the later MCA (from ad 1100) in Namibia, Ethiopia and at Lake Tanganyika. LIA cooling is evident in Ethiopian and southern African pollen records and in organic biomarker data from Lake Malawi in southeastern tropical Africa, while at Lake Tanganyika the temperature depression appears to have been less consistent. A warming trend in mean annual temperatures is clearly evident from historical and instrumental data covering the late 19th to early 21st centuries. General warming has occurred over Africa since the 1880s punctuated only by a period of cooling in the mid 20th century. The rate of temperature increase appears to have accelerated towards the end of the 20th century. The few long high-resolution proxy records that extend into the late 20th century indicate that average annual temperatures were 1-2 degrees C higher in the last few decades than during the MCA.
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ISSN 0959-6836 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number FCI @ refbase @ Serial 438
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Author Gilford, D.M.; Smith, S.R.; Griffin, M.L.; Arguez, A.
Title Southeastern U.S. Daily Temperature Ranges Associated with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology Abbreviated Journal J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol.
Volume 52 Issue 11 Pages 2434-2449
Keywords Climate variability; Climatology; ENSO; Surface temperature; Climate records
Abstract The daily temperature range (DTR; daily maximum temperature minus daily minimum temperature) at 290 southeastern U.S. stations is examined with respect to the warm and cold phases of the El Niño�Southern Oscillation (ENSO) for the period of 1948�2009. A comparison of El Niño and La Niña DTR distributions during 3-month seasons is conducted using various metrics. Histograms show each station�s particular distribution. To compare directly the normalized distributions of El Niño and La Niña, a new metric (herein called conditional ratio) is produced and results are evaluated for significance at 95% confidence with a bootstrapping technique. Results show that during 3-month winter, spring, and autumn seasons DTRs above 29°F (16.1°C) are significantly more frequent during La Niña events and that DTRs below 15°F (8.3°C) are significantly more frequent during El Niño events. It is hypothesized that these results are associated spatially with cloud cover and storm tracks during each season and ENSO phase. Relationships between DTRs and ENSO-related relative humidity are examined. These results are pertinent to the cattle industry in the Southeast, allowing ranchers to plan for and mitigate threats posed by periods of low DTRs associated with the predicted phase of ENSO.
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ISSN 1558-8424 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number FCI @ refbase @ Serial 446
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Author Koch, M.; Bowes, G.; Ross, C.; Zhang, X.-H.
Title Climate change and ocean acidification effects on seagrasses and marine macroalgae Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Change Biol
Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 103-132
Keywords calcification; climate change; dissolution; macroalgae; ocean acidification; seagrass; temperature; tropics
Abstract Although seagrasses and marine macroalgae (macro-autotrophs) play critical ecological roles in reef, lagoon, coastal and open-water ecosystems, their response to ocean acidification (OA) and climate change is not well understood. In this review, we examine marine macro-autotroph biochemistry and physiology relevant to their response to elevated dissolved inorganic carbon [DIC], carbon dioxide [CO2], and lower carbonate [CO32-] and pH. We also explore the effects of increasing temperature under climate change and the interactions of elevated temperature and [CO2]. Finally, recommendations are made for future research based on this synthesis. A literature review of >100 species revealed that marine macro-autotroph photosynthesis is overwhelmingly C3 (= 85%) with most species capable of utilizing HCO3-; however, most are not saturated at current ocean [DIC]. These results, and the presence of CO2-only users, lead us to conclude that photosynthetic and growth rates of marine macro-autotrophs are likely to increase under elevated [CO2] similar to terrestrial C3 species. In the tropics, many species live close to their thermal limits and will have to up-regulate stress-response systems to tolerate sublethal temperature exposures with climate change, whereas elevated [CO2] effects on thermal acclimation are unknown. Fundamental linkages between elevated [CO2] and temperature on photorespiration, enzyme systems, carbohydrate production, and calcification dictate the need to consider these two parameters simultaneously. Relevant to calcifiers, elevated [CO2] lowers net calcification and this effect is amplified by high temperature. Although the mechanisms are not clear, OA likely disrupts diffusion and transport systems of H+ and DIC. These fluxes control micro-environments that promote calcification over dissolution and may be more important than CaCO3 mineralogy in predicting macroalgal responses to OA. Calcareous macroalgae are highly vulnerable to OA, and it is likely that fleshy macroalgae will dominate in a higher CO2 ocean; therefore, it is critical to elucidate the research gaps identified in this review.
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number FCI @ refbase @ Serial 452
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Author Ruane, A.C.; McDermid, S.; Rosenzweig, C.; Baigorria, G.A.; Jones, J.W.; Romero, C.C.; DeWayne Cecil, L.
Title Carbon-Temperature-Water change analysis for peanut production under climate change: a prototype for the AgMIP Coordinated Climate-Crop Modeling Project (C3MP) Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Change Biol
Volume 20 Issue 2 Pages 394-407
Keywords AgMIP; agriculture; C3MP; climate change; climate impacts; crop model; carbon dioxide, temperature, and water; impacts response surface
Abstract Climate change is projected to push the limits of cropping systems and has the potential to disrupt the agricultural sector from local to global scales. This article introduces the Coordinated Climate-Crop Modeling Project (C3MP), an initiative of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) to engage a global network of crop modelers to explore the impacts of climate change via an investigation of crop responses to changes in carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]), temperature, and water. As a demonstration of the C3MP protocols and enabled analyses, we apply the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) CROPGRO-Peanut crop model for Henry County, Alabama, to evaluate responses to the range of plausible [CO2], temperature changes, and precipitation changes projected by climate models out to the end of the 21st century. These sensitivity tests are used to derive crop model emulators that estimate changes in mean yield and the coefficient of variation for seasonal yields across a broad range of climate conditions, reproducing mean yields from sensitivity test simulations with deviations of ca. 2% for rain-fed conditions. We apply these statistical emulators to investigate how peanuts respond to projections from various global climate models, time periods, and emissions scenarios, finding a robust projection of modest (<10%) median yield losses in the middle of the 21st century accelerating to more severe (>20%) losses and larger uncertainty at the end of the century under the more severe representative concentration pathway (RCP8.5). This projection is not substantially altered by the selection of the AgMERRA global gridded climate dataset rather than the local historical observations, differences between the Third and Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3 and CMIP5), or the use of the delta method of climate impacts analysis rather than the C3MP impacts response surface and emulator approach.
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ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number FCI @ refbase @ Serial 461
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Author Deng, Y.; Park, T.-W.; Cai, M.
Title Radiative and Dynamical Forcing of the Surface and Atmospheric Temperature Anomalies Associated with the Northern Annular Mode Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Journal of Climate Abbreviated Journal J. Climate
Volume 26 Issue 14 Pages 5124-5138
Keywords Diabatic heating; Feedback; Radiative forcing; Temperature; Arctic Oscillation; Intraseasonal variability
Abstract On the basis of the total energy balance within an atmosphere-surface column, an attribution analysis is conducted for the Northern Hemisphere (NH) atmospheric and surface temperature response to the northern annular mode (NAM) in boreal winter. The local temperature anomaly in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) is decomposed into partial temperature anomalies because of changes in atmospheric dynamics, water vapor, clouds, ozone, surface albedo, and surface dynamics with the coupled atmosphere-surface climate feedback-response analysis method (CFRAM). Large-scale ascent/descent as part of the NAM-related mean meridional circulation anomaly adiabatically drives the main portion of the observed zonally averaged atmospheric temperature response, particularly the tropospheric cooling/warming over northern extratropics. Contributions from diabatic processes are generally small but could be locally important, especially at lower latitudes where radiatively active substances such as clouds and water vapor are more abundant. For example, in the tropical upper troposphere and stratosphere, both cloud and ozone forcings are critical in leading to the observed NAM-related temperature anomalies. Radiative forcing due to changes in water vapor acts as the main driver of the surface warming of southern North America during a positive phase of NAM, with atmospheric dynamics providing additional warming. In the negative phase of NAM, surface albedo change drives the surface cooling of southern North America, with atmospheric dynamics providing additional cooling. Over the subpolar North Atlantic and northern Eurasia, atmospheric dynamical processes again become the largest contributor to the NAM-related surface temperature anomalies, although changes in water vapor and clouds also contribute positively to the observed surface temperature anomalies while change in surface dynamics contributes negatively to the observed temperature anomalies.
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ISSN 0894-8755 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number FCI @ refbase @ Serial 487
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Author Song, X.; Zhang, G.J.; Cai, M.
Title Characterizing the Climate Feedback Pattern in the NCAR CCSM3-SOM Using Hourly Data Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Journal of Climate Abbreviated Journal J. Climate
Volume 27 Issue 8 Pages 2912-2930
Keywords Regional effects; Feedback; Climate sensitivity; Model evaluation/performance; Climate models; Surface temperature
Abstract The climate feedback-response analysis method (CFRAM) was applied to 10-yr hourly output of the NCAR Community Climate System Model, version 3, using the slab ocean model (CCSM3-SOM), to analyze the strength and spatial distribution of climate feedbacks and to characterize their contributions to the global and regional surface temperature T-s changes in response to a doubling of CO2. The global mean bias in the sum of partial T-s changes associated with the CO2 forcing, and each feedback derived with the CFRAM analysis is about 2% of T-s change obtained directly from the CCSM3-SOM simulations. The pattern correlation between the two is 0.94, indicating that the CFRAM analysis using hourly model output is accurate and thus is appropriate for quantifying the contributions of climate feedback to the formation of global and regional warming patterns. For global mean T-s, the largest contributor to the warming is water vapor feedback, followed by the direct CO2 forcing and albedo feedback. The albedo feedback exhibits the largest spatial variation, followed by shortwave cloud feedback. In terms of pattern correlation and RMS difference with the modeled global surface warming, longwave cloud feedback contributes the most. On zonal average, albedo feedback is the largest contributor to the stronger warming in high latitudes than in the tropics. The longwave cloud feedback further amplifies the latitudinal warming contrast. Both the land-ocean warming difference and contributions of climate feedbacks to it vary with latitude. Equatorward of 50 degrees, shortwave cloud feedback and dynamical advection are the two largest contributors. The land-ocean warming difference on the hemispheric scale is mainly attributable to longwave cloud feedback and convection.
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ISSN 0894-8755 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number FCI @ refbase @ Serial 521
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Author Sejas, S.A.; Cai, M.; Hu, A.; Meehl, G.A.; Washington, W.; Taylor, P.C.
Title Individual Feedback Contributions to the Seasonality of Surface Warming Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Journal of Climate Abbreviated Journal J. Climate
Volume 27 Issue 14 Pages 5653-5669
Keywords Carbon dioxide; Climate change; Feedback; Forcing; Surface temperature; Seasonal cycle
Abstract Using the climate feedback response analysis method, the authors examine the individual contributions of the CO2 radiative forcing and climate feedbacks to the magnitude, spatial pattern, and seasonality of the transient surface warming response in a 1% yr&#8722;1 CO2 increase simulation of the NCAR Community Climate System Model, version 4 (CCSM4). The CO2 forcing and water vapor feedback warm the surface everywhere throughout the year. The tropical warming is predominantly caused by the CO2 forcing and water vapor feedback, while the evaporation feedback reduces the warming. Most feedbacks exhibit noticeable seasonal variations; however, their net effect has little seasonal variation due to compensating effects, which keeps the tropical warming relatively invariant all year long. The polar warming has a pronounced seasonal cycle, with maximum warming in fall/winter and minimum warming in summer. In summer, the large cancelations between the shortwave and longwave cloud feedbacks and between the surface albedo feedback warming and the cooling from the ocean heat storage/dynamics feedback lead to a warming minimum. In polar winter, surface albedo and shortwave cloud feedbacks are nearly absent due to a lack of insolation. However, the ocean heat storage feedback relays the polar warming due to the surface albedo feedback from summer to winter, and the longwave cloud feedback warms the polar surface. Therefore, the seasonal variations in the cloud feedback, surface albedo feedback, and ocean heat storage/dynamics feedback, directly caused by the strong annual cycle of insolation, contribute primarily to the large seasonal variation of polar warming. Furthermore, the CO2 forcing and water vapor and atmospheric dynamics feedbacks add to the maximum polar warming in fall/winter.
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ISSN 0894-8755 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number FCI @ refbase @ Serial 552
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Author Hodges, R.E.; Jagger, T.H.; Elsner, J.B.
Title The sun-hurricane connection: Diagnosing the solar impacts on hurricane frequency over the North Atlantic basin using a space-time model Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Natural Hazards Abbreviated Journal Nat Hazards
Volume 73 Issue 2 Pages 1063-1084
Keywords Sunspots; Hurricanes; North Atlantic Oscillation; El Niño Southern Oscillation; Sea-surface temperatures; Risk; Bayesian; Space–time model; Hexagon tessellation
Abstract The authors define a spatio-statistical response of hurricane frequency to the solar cycle. Previous research indicates reduced (increased) hurricane intensities and frequency in the western (eastern) tropical Atlantic. However, no formal quantitative relationship has been spatially established between hurricane frequency and solar activity. The authors use a Bayesian hierarchical space–time model, an increasingly popular approach due to its advantage in facilitating regression modeling of space–time phenomena in the context of large data sets. Regional hurricane frequency over the period 1866–2010 is examined in response to September sunspot number (SSN) while controlling for other relevant climate factors. The response features a 13 % reduction in probability of annual hurricane occurrence for southeastern Cuba, the southern Bahama islands, Haiti, and Jamaica when the SSN is 80 sunspots. In contrast, hurricane risk in regions of the southeastern Atlantic is predicted to increase by 73 % when the SSN is 160 sunspots. The model can be ported to explore other relationships over contiguous space.
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ISSN 0921-030X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number FCI @ refbase @ Serial 566
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Author Weihs, R.R.; Bourassa, M.A.
Title Modeled diurnally varying sea surface temperatures and their influence on surface heat fluxes Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans Abbreviated Journal J. Geophys. Res. Oceans
Volume 119 Issue 7 Pages 4101-4123
Keywords diurnal cycle; surface heat fluxes; sea surface temperature
Abstract A diurnal warming model is used to create a new data set of global, diurnally varying sea surface temperatures (dSSTs) and surface turbulent heat fluxes over a 5 year period. The magnitude of diurnal warming is primarily a function of low wind speed and net heat flux. Differences between each of the surface turbulent fluxes with and without a diurnally varying SST are examined on hourly, daily, and seasonal time scales. Over a 2 month period, maximum averaged diurnal warming is as large as 0.3°C, and latent heat flux is underestimated by as much as 8 W/m2 in the Indian Ocean. They also exceed roughly 0.7°C and 10 W/m2, respectively, up to 25% of the total daytime in the Atlantic. A best-case approach validation shows the model overestimates peak warming and underestimates the duration of the cycle, though the average error is quite small. The model is tested under a variety of wind speed, solar radiation, and precipitation conditions to examine the impact of potential biases or error in the input data. To test the impact of a positive bias in the wind speeds, diurnal warming magnitudes are recomputed with an adjusted wind under near-neutral conditions. Compared to the original data, diurnal warming can increase by as much as 1.5°C on an hourly scale but generally is <0.06°C. Although precipitation effects on dSSTs are small compared to winds and radiation, the model configuration wrongly causes diurnal warming to increase by precipitation, contrary to the underlying model physics.
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ISSN 2169-9275 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number FCI @ refbase @ Serial 569
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Author Tynan, S.; Dutton, A.; Eggins, S.; Opdyke, B.
Title Oxygen isotope records of the Australian flat oyster (Ostrea angasi) as a potential temperature archive Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Marine Geology Abbreviated Journal Marine Geology
Volume 357 Issue Pages 195-209
Keywords bivalve; oyster; Ostrea angasi; oxygen isotopes; paleotemperature
Abstract The response of the oxygen isotope ratio (&#948;18O) in shells of the Australian native flat oyster Ostrea angasi to changes in water temperature has been assessed using growth experiments conducted for one year at two locations on the east coast of Australia. The analysed &#948;18O of the oyster shells (&#948;18Oshell) closely follows the predicted oyster shell &#948;18O constructed from measured &#948;18O in the water (&#948;18Owater) and water temperature. Influxes of freshwater that occur in the estuarine habitats of O. angasi can modify the &#948;18Owater, and consequently &#948;18Oshell. Salinity fluctuations can also cause interruptions to shell growth in this species. This can cause overestimated temperatures in O. angasi &#948;18Oshell temperature reconstructions. A &#948;18Oshell–temperature calibration was established for O. angasi, yielding the relationship: T°C = 13.97 &#8722; (3.57&#948;18Oshell &#8722; &#948;18Owater) + (0.17&#948;18Oshell &#8722; &#948;18Owater)2, n = 79, R2 = 0.79, which, within the experimental uncertainties of the data, is similar to other published biogenic carbonate paleotemperature equations.
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ISSN 0025-3227 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number FCI @ refbase @ Serial 594
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Author Wang, Y.; Xu, Y.; Khawaja, S.; Passey, B.H.; Zhang, C.; Wang, X.; Li, Q.; Tseng, Z.J.; Takeuchi, G.T.; Deng, T.; Xie, G.
Title Diet and environment of a mid-Pliocene fauna from southwestern Himalaya: Paleo-elevation implications Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Earth and Planetary Science Letters Abbreviated Journal Earth and Planetary Science Letters
Volume 376 Issue Pages 43-53
Keywords stable isotopes; paleo-diet; paleo-temperature; paleo-elevation; Himalaya; Tibetan Plateau
Abstract A mid-Pliocene fauna (4.2–3.1 Ma) was recently uncovered in the Zanda (Zhada) Basin in the southwestern Himalaya, at an elevation of about 4200 m above sea level. These fossil materials provide a unique window for examining the linkage among tectonic, climatic and biotic changes. Here we report the results from isotopic analyses of this fauna and of modern herbivores and waters as well as paleo-temperature estimates from the Zanda Basin. The &#948;13C&#948;13C values of enamel samples from modern wild Tibetan asses, and domesticated horses, cows and goats in the area are &#8722;9.4±1.8‰&#8722;9.4±1.8‰, which indicate a diet comprising predominantly of C3 plants and are consistent with the current dominance of C3 vegetation in the region. The enamel-&#948;13C&#948;13C values of the fossil horses, rhinos, deer, and bovids are &#8722;9.6±0.8‰&#8722;9.6±0.8‰, indicating that these ancient mammals, like modern herbivores in the area, also fed primarily on C3 vegetation and lived in an environment dominated by C3 plants. The lack of significant C4 plants in the basin suggests that the area had reached high elevations (>2.5 km) by at least the mid-Pliocene. Taking into account the changes in the &#948;13C&#948;13C of atmospheric CO2 in the past, the enamel-&#948;13C&#948;13C values suggest that the average modern-equivalent &#948;13C&#948;13C value of C3 vegetation in the Zanda Basin in the mid-Pliocene was &#8764;1–2‰&#8764;1–2‰ lower than that of the C3 biomass in the basin today. This would imply a reduction in annual precipitation by about 200–400 mm in the area since then (assuming that the modern View the MathML sourceC3&#948;13C–precipitation relationship applied to the past). Consistent with this inference from the &#948;13C&#948;13C data, the enamel-&#948;18O&#948;18O data show a significant shift to higher values after the mid-Pliocene, which also suggests a shift in climate to much drier conditions after &#8764;4–3&#8764;4–3 Ma. Paleo-temperature estimates derived from a fossil bone-based oxygen isotope temperature proxy as well as the carbonate clumped isotope thermometer for the mid-Pliocene Zanda Basin are higher than the present-day mean annual temperature in the area. After accounting for late Cenozoic global cooling, these paleo-temperature estimates suggest that the paleo-elevation of the Zanda Basin in the mid-Pliocene was similar to or slightly (less than &#8764;1 km) lower than its present-day elevation, which is consistent with the inference from the &#948;13C&#948;13C data.
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ISSN 0012821X ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number FCI @ refbase @ Serial 613
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