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Deep Sea Res
Hauff, B., Cervino, J., Haslun, J., Krucher, N., Wier, A., Mannix, A., et al. (2014). Genetically divergent Symbiodinium sp. display distinct molecular responses to pathogenic Vibrio and thermal stress.
Dis. Aquat. Org.
Global climate change and anthropogenic activities are threatening the future survival of coral reef ecosystems. The ability of reef-building zooxanthellate coral to survive these stressors may be determined through fundamental differences within their symbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium sp.). We define the in vitro apoptotic response of 2 evolutionarily distant Symbiodinium sp., subtypes B2 and C1, to determine the synergistic effects of disease and temperature on cell viability using flow cytometry. The putative yellow band disease (YBD) consortium of Vibrio spp. bacteria and temperature (33°C) had a positive synergistic effect on C1 apoptosis, while B2 displayed increased apoptosis to elevated temperature (29 and 33°C), the Vibrio consortium, and a lone virulent strain of V. alginolyticus, but no synergistic effects. Additionally, heat shock protein 60 expression revealed differential cell-mediated temperature sensitivity between subtypes via western blotting. This result marks the first evidence of Symbiodinium sp. apoptotic variations to YBD pathogens and emphasizes the potential impact of synergistic stress on globally distributed coral-Symbiodinium symbioses.
· Yellow band disease
Heat shock protein 60
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Klepac, C., Beal, J., Kenkel, C., Sproles, A., Polinski, J., Williams, M., et al. (2015). Seasonal stability of coral-Symbiodinium associations in the subtropical coral habitat of St. Lucie Reef, Florida.
Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.
The coral community at St. Lucie Reef (Stuart, Florida; 27°8’N, 80°8’W) is found near the northern latitudinal range limit for Florida reefs and persists under environmental variability from freshwater discharges, summer upwelling, and thermal instability. Since aspects of coral physiology can be attributed to the composition of endosymbiotic zooxanthellae (genus Symbiodinium), we examined the dynamics of Symbiodinium strains in St. Lucie corals to gain insight into the organization of coral-algal symbioses under local stressors. Two scleractinian coral species that dominate the reef, Montastraea cavernosa and Pseudodiploria clivosa, were repeatedly sampled at 4 reef sites over 17 mo, during both wet and dry seasons. Symbiodinium cellular density and photosynthetic pigments differed between the 2 coral hosts, where Pseudodiploria clivosa had higher cell densities and chlorophyll concentrations than Montastraea cavernosa. Over time, these parameters varied, but were not significantly altered following freshwater discharge events. Symbiodinium diversity and abundances were identified using ITS2 region amplification and next-generation sequencing, which revealed remarkable stability of the relative proportions of different Symbiodinium genotypes throughout the sampling period. Novel associations with unique Symbiodinium strains observed for each coral species as well as the stability of these symbioses could indicate local adaptation of St. Lucie Reef corals to their marginal environmental conditions.
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