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Deep Sea Res
Heinemann, A. B., Maia, A. D., Dourado-Neto, D., Ingram, K. T., & Hoogenboom, C. (2006). Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) growth and development response to CO2 enrichment under different temperature regimes.
European Journal of Agronomy
, , 52–61.
The carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration of the global atmosphere has increased during the last decades. This increase is expected to impact the diurnal variation in temperature as well as the occurrence of extreme temperatures. This potentially could affect crop production through changes in growth and development that will ultimately impact yield. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of CO2 and its interaction with temperature on growth and development of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr., cv. Stonewall). The experiment was conducted in controlled environment chambers at the Georgia Envirotron under three different temperatures and two CO2 regimes. The day/night air temperatures were maintained at 20/15, 25/20 and 30/25 degrees C, while the CO2 levels were maintained at 400 and 700 ppm, resulting in six different treatments. Plants were grown under a constant irradiance of 850 mu moles m(-2) s(-1) and a day length of 12 h; a non-limiting supply of water and mineral nutrients were provided. Five growth analyses were conducted at the critical development stages V4, R3, R5, R6 and R8. No differences in start of flowering were observed as a function of the CO2 level, except for the temperature regime 25/20 degrees C, where flowering for the elevated CO2 level occurred 2 days earlier than for the ambient CO2 level. For aboveground biomass, an increase in the CO2 level caused a more vigorous growth at lower temperatures. An increase in temperature also decreased seed weight, mainly due to a reduction in seed size. For all temperature combinations, final seed weight was higher for the elevated CO, level. This study showed that controlled environment chambers can be excellent facilities for conducting a detailed growth analysis to study the impact on the interactive effect of changes in temperature and CO2 on soybean growth and final yield. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
growth chamber controlled environment global climate change growth analysis soybean temperature CO2 development CARBON-DIOXIDE CONCENTRATION ATMOSPHERIC CO2 ELEVATED CO2 SEED YIELD ENVIRONMENTAL-STRESS PLANT-RESPONSES AIR-TEMPERATURE PHOTOSYNTHESIS RESPIRATION CULTIVARS
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Pusack, T. J., Kimbro, D. L., White, J. W., & Stallings, C. D. (2019). Predation on oysters is inhibited by intense or chronically mild, low salinity events: Low salinity stress reduces predation.
Environmental stress gradients can affect species distributions and interspecific interactions. Because environmental stress depends on both intensity and duration, understanding the consequences of stress requires experiments that simultaneously manipulate both dimensions. In Apalachicola Bay, Florida (U.S.A.) the southern oyster drill (Stramonita haemastoma) is a major predator of the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica). Drill predation appears to be salinity-dependent: in a recent field study, predation rates were positively correlated with salinity. Salinity in the bay is typically high (> 20) during the dry summer months, conditions that favor both oysters and the drill. However, periodic freshets can dramatically reduce salinity, which inhibits (or kills) drills, but not oysters. In this study, we used field measurements of salinity and drill densities to inform mesocosm experiments. We investigated the specific combinations of intensity and duration of low-salinity stress that inhibit drill predation. In these experiments, more intense salinity reductions reduced feeding both during and after the low-salinity stress event. During the event, longer durations (15 d) were necessary for mild salinity reductions (-5) to reduce the feeding rate by the same amount as a short (5 d) exposure of more intense (-10 or -15) salinity reduction. Both conditions may create a predation refuge for oysters, consistent with field observations. Given that the recent collapse of the Apalachicola Bay oyster population was preceded by several years without low-salinity events to inhibit predation, our results provide a mechanism by which a predator may have contributed to the loss of a historically productive and sustainable fishery.
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